Some psychologists(心理学家) maintain that mental acts such as thinking are not performed
in the brain alone, but that one' s muscles also participate. (76) It may be said that we think with
our muscles in somewhat the same way that we listen to music with our bodies.
You surely are not surprised to be told that you usually listen to music not only with your ears
but with your whole body. Few people can listen to music without moving their body or, more specifically, some part of their body. Often when one listens to a symphonic concert on the radio, he is attracted to direct the orchestra (乐队) even though he knows there is a good conductor on the job.
Strange as this behavior may be, there is a very good reason for it. One cannot derive all possible enjoyment from music unless he participates, so to speak, in its performance. The listener "feels" himself into the music with more or less noticeable motions of his body.
( 77 ) The muscles of the body actually participate in the mental process of thinking in the same
way, but this participation is less obvious because it is less noticeable.
1. Some psychologists think that thinking is
A. not a mental process
B. more of a physical process than a mental action
C. a process that involves our entire bodies
D. a process that involves the muscles as well as the brain
2. The process of thinking and that of listening to music are similar in that
A. both are mental acts
B. muscles participate in both processes
C. both processes are performed by the entire body
D. we derive equal enjoyment from them
3. Few people are able to listen to familiar music without
A. moving some part of their body
B. stopping what they are doing to listen
C. directing the orchestra playing it
D. wishing that they could conduct music properly
4. The listener's way of "feeling" the music is
A. the unnoticed motion of his muscles
B. "participating" in the performance
C. bending an ear to the music
D. being the conductor of the orchestra
5. According to the passage, muscle participation in the process of thinking is
It is difficult to imagine what life would be like without memory. (78) The meanings of. thousands of everyday perceptions , the bases for the decisions we make, and the roots of our habits and
skills are to be found in our past experiences, which are brought into the present by memory.
Memory can be defined as the capacity to keep information available for later use. It includes
not only "remembering" things like arithmetic or historical facts, but also involving any change in
the way an animal typically behaves. (79)Memory is involved when a rat gives up eating grain be-
cause he has sniffed something suspicious in the grain pile. Memory is also involved when a six-
year-old child learns to swing a baseball bat.
Memory exists not only in humans and animals but also in some physical objects and machines. Computers, for example, contain devices for storing data for later use. It is interesting to
compare the memory-storage capacity of a computer with that of a human being. The instant-access memory of a large computer may hold up to 100,000 " words" --ready for instant use. An average U.S. teenager probably recognizes the meaning of about 100,000 words of English. However, this is but a fraction of the total amount of information which the teenager has stored. Consider, for example, the number of faces and places that the teenager can recognize on sight.
The use of words is the basis of the advanced problem-solving intelligence of human beings.
A large part of a person' s memory is in terms of words and combinations of words.
6. According to the passage, memory is considered to be
A. the basis for decision making and problem solving
B. an ability to store experiences for future use
C. an intelligence typically possessed by human beings
D. the data mainly consisting of words and combinations of words
7. The comparison made between the memory capacity of a large computer and that of a human being shows that
A. the computer' s memory has a little bigger capacity than a teenager' s
B. the computer' s memory capacity is much smaller that an adult human being' s
C. the computer' s memory capacity is much smaller even than a teenager' s
D. both A and B
8. The whole passage implies that
A. only human beings have problem-solving intelligence
B. a person' s memory is different from a computer' s in every respect
C. animals are able to solve only very simple problems
D. animals solve problems by instincts rather than intelligence
9. The phrase "in terms of" in the last sentence can best be replaced by
A. "in connection with"
B. "expressed by"
D. "by means of"
10. The topic of the passage is:
A. What would life be like without memory ?
B. Memory is of vital importance to life.
C. How is a person' s memory different from an animal' s or a computer' s?
D. What is contained in memory ?
7.C推理判断题。根据文章的第三段，一台计算机存储的“词汇”能达到100，000个;而一个十几岁的少年的词汇量也能达到100，000 个。然而，根据文章，100，000个 单词只是一个十几岁的少年全部记忆存储的一小部分。所以，计算机的“记忆”储备量要比一个十几岁的少年的记忆存储量 小得多。因为比较是在计算机和青少年之间进行的，与成年人无关，所以不能选B。
8.C推理判断题。从文章第二段小老鼠的例子可判断，动物也有记忆，也有一定解决问题的智力，所以C是对的。根据文章最后一段第一句提到的“高 级智力advanced intelligence”可知动物也有智力，只是相比人类智力低而已，所以A说只有人类才有解决问题的智力是不准确的;D说动物解决问题靠本能而不靠智 力也是不对的。而根据文章的第三段，计算机在存储“词汇”方面和一个十几岁的少年是一样的，所以B说计算机存储和人脑记忆在各方面都不一样是错误的。
9.B推理判断题。in terms of“根据;按照;用…来说”。如果不知道该短语的意思，也可通过主语“一个人的大部分记忆”和“词或词组”之间的关系来判断。本句的意思是一个人的大部分记忆都是靠词和词组表达出来的。
10.B归纳概括题。文章的主题要根据内容来确定。第一段讲的是记忆的重要作用;第二段解释记忆是什么及其表现;第三段讲人类将记忆功能运用到 机器如计算机当中，并将人的记忆与计算机记忆进行比较;第四段说大部分记忆都是通过词汇表现的。四个选项当中只有B更贴近文章的主题，其他三个选项都只是 文章涉及的一个方面，都不具有概括性。
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